# Scoring

## Introduction

The scoring system used in World Series of Mahjong is a system developed for international mahjong competitions with these goals: rules simplicity and ease of learning, international fairness, and game playability (competition of skill). At its core are the scoring “patterns”.

## Basic Rules

- Only the winning hand is scored. The winning player collects points corresponding to the value of his hand, from the other three players according to the “payoff scheme”.
- The 44 “patterns” are listed below. Each pattern specifies a certain condition; for fulfilling the specified condition, the winning hand scores the specified point value. There are no “basic points” added for winning the hand itself; a hand scores only for the patterns it contains.
- The patterns are organized into
**categories**and**series**. In the numbering, the first number indicates the category, and the second number indicates the series (within that category). For example, “3.3” indicates the “Winds” series in the “Honor Tiles” category. **Additive Rule**: When the winning hand fulfills the conditions for multiple patterns, the value of the hand is generally the sum of the values of the relevant patterns. (The multiplicative “Faan” system is not used.) You can count all patterns contained in the hand (even if one of them constitutes a necessary condition for another), provided that they belong to*different series*. You cannot count multiple patterns from the same series, nor can you count the same pattern more than once. (“3.1 Value Honor” is an exception: you can add 10 points for each set of value honors in your hand.) As an example, a hand with “Four Concealed Triplets” is always also a “Concealed Hand” and an “All Triplets” hand, so such hand always scores at least 125+5+30=160 points.**No Minimum Requirement**: Under the new tournament format for this year’s event, the benefits (and the damages received by the opponents) of the “chicken hand” is greatly reduced. Hence the prohibition on the chicken hand is now abolished; one may win with a regular hand even if it contains no patterns. Said hand scores 1 point.

Note that a mere 1 point in this scoring system is hardly better than nothing. It is merely a token score.**Maximum Limit**: There is a “limit” of 320 points. If the hand contains multiple patterns of which values add up to 320 or more, the hand scores 320 points (called a “Compound Limit Hand”). But if the hand contains a pattern which has a listed value of 320 or more (called a “Listed Limit Hand”), it scores the single highest-valued pattern in the hand. (It scores for one single pattern only.)- For some basic rules on winning and scoring, please see the section on “Scoring the Winning Hand” in the “Mahjong Rules” chapter, in particular the rule on “Freedom of Count”.

## Payoff Scheme

**Fixed Income Principle:**The total income of the winning player is determined solely by the total value of the patterns in his hand: the income is always 3 times the pattern value. It will not fluctuate just because the player luckily self-draws. The payoff scheme here specifies how this payment should be split among the three other players.**Everybody pays for self-draw**: When the winner self-draws, no one is “responsible”. When no one is responsible, the payment is split equally among the three other players: each player pays the winner 1 time the total pattern value of his hand.**Discarder pays for big hands**: When the winner wins on discard, in general the discarder is “responsible” (exception explained below). 25 points is taken to be the standard score value; for small hands of 25 points or less, the three players split the payment equally (regardless of who is responsible), and each player pays the winner 1 time the total hand value. For a big hand of over 25 points, each player first pays the winner 25 points, and then the responsible player pays the rest. For example, if the winning hand is 70 points, the two non-responsible players each pay 25 points, and the responsible player pays the remaining 160 points. The winner gets in total 210 points, which is exactly 3 times 70 points.**Rule of Same-Turn Immunity**: When the winner wins on discard, if in the same turn (starting from and including the winner’s previous discarded tile, until before the win) another player has just discarded the same tile as the winning tile, then the discarder will not be “responsible” for having followed with the same discard. The player who first discarded the winning tile in the same turn (after the winner’s previous discard) will be considered responsible. But if the winner has just discarded the winning tile, then no one will be considered responsible (and the payment split equally among the three players just like a self-draw win).

## The Patterns

There are a total of 44 patterns in 10 categories.

### 1.0 Trivial patterns

- 1.1
**All Sequences (平和)**: 5 - The hand contains 4 sequences; no triplets/kong.

(There are no other restrictions as to the eyes pair, single call, or concealed hand.) - 1.2
**Concealed Hand (門前清)**: 5 - A regular hand which is concealed, without melding any exposed sets before winning. Winning on discard is okay. Concealed kong are okay.
- 1.3
**No Terminals (斷么九)**: 5 - The hand consists entirely of middle number tiles (2 to 8); no terminals or honors.

### 2.0 One-Suit patterns

- 2.1.1
**Mixed One-Suit (混一色)**: 40 - The hand consists entirely of number tiles in one suit, plus honor tiles.
- 2.1.2
**Pure One-Suit (清一色)**: 80 - The hand consists entirely of number tiles in one suit.
- 2.2
**Nine Gates (九蓮寶燈)**: 480 - A 9-way call hand, with “1112345678999” in one suit in your hand, and winning on any one tile in the same suit.

(See also “Nine Gates Self-draw rule”.)

### 3.0 Honor Tiles

- 3.1
**Value Honor (番牌)**: 10 per set - A triplet/kong of Seat Wind (your own Wind) or Dragons.

Note: the Prevailing Wind is not recognized. - 3.2.1
**Small Three Dragons (小三元)**: 40 - Two triplet/kong of Dragons, plus a pair of Dragons as the eyes.
- Example: , , (eyes)
- (This hand always includes two Dragon triplets, so it scores at least 40+10+10=60 points.)

- 3.2.2
**Big Three Dragons (大三元)**: 130 - Three triplet/kong of Dragons.

Example: , ,

(This hand always includes three Dragon triplets, so it scores at least 130+10+10+10=160 points.) - 3.3.1
**Small Three Winds (小三風)**: 30 - Two triplet/kong of Winds, plus a pair of Winds as the eyes.

Example: , , (eyes) - 3.3.2
**Big Three Winds (大三風)**: 120 - Three triplet/kong of Winds.

Example: , , - 3.3.3
**Small Four Winds (小四喜)**: 320 - Three triplet/kong of Winds, plus a pair of Winds as the eyes.

Example: , , , (eyes) - 3.3.4
**Big Four Winds (大四喜)**: 400 - Four triplet/kong of Winds.
- Example: , , ,
- 3.4
**All Honors (字一色)**: 320 - The hand consists entirely of honor tiles.

### 4.0 Triplets and Kong

**Concealed Triplet**: A concealed triplet is defined as a triplet whose three tiles are all drawn from the wall by its owner. An exposed triplet is a triplet with two tiles drawn from the wall, plus a third tile claimed from an opponent through a “pong” or “win on discard” claim. In other words, with a two-pair call, you make a concealed triplet if you win on self-draw, and an exposed triplet if you win on discard.

- 4.1
**All Triplets (對對和)**: 30 - The hand contains 4 set of triplets/kong; no sequences.
- 4.2.1
**Two Concealed Triplets (二暗刻)**: 5 - The hand contains two concealed triplets/concealed kong.
- 4.2.2
**Three Concealed Triplets (三暗刻)**: 30 - The hand contains three concealed triplets/concealed kong.
- 4.2.3
**Four Concealed Triplets (四暗刻)**: 125 - The hand contains four concealed triplets/concealed kong.
- 4.3.1
**One Kong (一槓)**: 5 - The hand contains one kong. (Irrespective of whether it is exposed or concealed; same below.)
- 4.3.2
**Two Kong (二槓)**: 20 - The hand contains two kong.
- 4.3.3
**Three Kong (三槓)**: 120 - The hand contains three kong.
- 4.3.4
**Four Kong (四槓)**: 480 - The hand contains four kong.

### 5.0 Identical Sets

*Identical* sets are sets in the same suit in the same numbers. Obviously, only sequences can be identical.

- 5.1.1
**Two Identical Sequences (一般高)**: 10 - Two sequences in the same suit in the same numbers.
- 5.1.2
**Two Identical Sequences Twice (兩般高)**: 60 - The hand contains two groups of “Two Identical Sequences”.

Example: , , , - 5.1.3
**Three Identical Sequences (一色三同順)**: 120 - Three sequences in the same suit in the same numbers.

Example: , , - 5.1.4
**Four Identical Sequences (一色四同順)**: 480 - Four sequences in the same suit in the same numbers.

Example: , , ,

### 6.0 Similar Sets

*Similar* Sets are sets in the same numbers across 3 different suits.

All 3 suits must be present; 2-suit patterns are not recognized.

- 6.1
**Three Similar Sequences (三色同順)**: 35 - Three sequences in the same numbers across three different suits.
- 6.2.1
**Small Three Similar Triplets (三色小同刻)**: 30 - Two triplets/kong in the same number in two different suits, and the eye pair in the same number in the third suit.

Example: , , (eye) - 6.2.2
**Three Similar Triplets (三色同刻)**: 120 - Three triplets/kong in the same number across three different suits.

Example: , ,

### 7.0 Consecutive Sets

*Consecutive* sets are sets in the same suit in consecutive numbers. The patterns here require three or more such sets.

- 7.1
**Nine-Tile Straight (一氣通貫)**: 40 - A “123” sequence, a “456” sequence, and a “789” sequence, all in the same suit.

(The hand must contain exactly the three sequences listed above.) - 7.2.1
**Three Consecutive Triplets (三連刻)**: 100 - Three triplets/kong in consecutive numbers in the same suit.

Example: , , - 7.2.2
**Four Consecutive Triplets (四連刻)**: 200 - Four triplets/kong in consecutive numbers in the same suit.

Example: , , ,

### 8.0 Terminals

Terminals are the 1 and 9 number tiles.

The *Greater* patterns consist of terminal tiles only, while the *Lesser* patterns include also “123” and “789” sequences.

- 8.1.1
**Mixed Lesser Terminals (混全帶么)**: 40 - Every of the 4 sets in the hand, as well as the pair of eyes, includes a terminal tile or an honor tile.
- 8.1.2
**Pure Lesser Terminals (純全帶么)**: 50 - Every of the 4 sets in the hand, as well as the pair of eyes, includes a terminal number tile.

Example: , , , , - 8.1.3
**Mixed Greater Terminals (混么九)**: 100 - An “All Triplets” hand or a “Seven Pairs” hand which consists entirely of terminal tiles and honor tiles. (A “Thirteen Terminals” hand does not qualify.)

Example: , , , , - 8.1.4
**Pure Greater Terminals (清么九)**: 400 - The hand consists entirely of terminal number tiles.

Example: , , , ,

### 9.0 Incidental bonuses

Lucky bonuses for winning on rare opportunities.

- 9.1.1
**Final Draw (海底撈月)**: 10 - Self-draw win on the “seabed” tile (the last tile in the wall, excluding the king’s tiles).
- 9.1.2
**Final Discard (河底撈魚)**: 10 - Winning on a discarded “riverbed” tile (the last discard by the player who has drawn the seabed tile).
- 9.2
**Win on Kong (嶺上開花)**: 10 - Self-draw win on a “supplement” tile (after declaring a kong).

(If the supplement tile is also the seabed tile, both patterns can be counted.) - 9.3
**Robbing a Kong (搶槓)**: 10 - Winning by robbing a kong (when another player makes a “small exposed kong”).
- 9.4.1
**Blessing of Heaven (天和)**: 155 - East winning with his initial 14-tile hand.

(Does not count if East has made a concealed kong.) - 9.4.2
**Blessing of Earth (地和)**: 155 - A non-East player calling with his initial 13-tile hand, and winning on East’s very first discard.

Does not count if East has made a concealed kong.

### 10.0 Irregular Hands

Irregular Hands are hands that do not consist of 4 sets and a pair. An irregular hand does not count for “Concealed Hand”.

- 10.1
**Thirteen Terminals (十三么九)**: 160 - Among the 13 types of terminals and honors, the hand contains one pair of one type, and one tile each of the other 12 types.
- 10.2
**Seven Pairs (七對子)**: 30 - The hand consists of seven pairs.
Four identical tiles can count as two pairs as long as kong is not declared.

A Seven Pairs hand cannot count those patterns which specifically require triplets, kong, or sequences. But it can count other patterns which do not have such requirements.